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1978-81 Conducting research for Ph.D. thesis in the Department of Experimental Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, under the instruction of Dr. Robert Stern and Dr. Denis Gospodarowicz, on the study of collagen biochemistry and endothelial cell biology affected by fibroblast growth factor and extracellular matrix.
1981-82 Conducting research at the Wilmer Institute, and the Department of Dermatology, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, under the supervision of Dr. Tung-Tien Sun, on the study of the functional role of different keratin antigens in epithelial differentiation, in embryonic development of skin and cornea, and in abnormal keratinization secondary to vitamin A deficiency using a monoclonal antibody approach.
1982-84 Conducting research in the laboratory of Eye Pathology, the Wilmer Institute, under the supervision of Dr. W. Richard Green and Dr. A. Edward Maumenee, on the study of conjunctival goblet cell biology, including the role of retinoids in modulating conjunctival transdifferentiation, development of a modified impression cytology technique for clinical studies of squamous metaplasia, and the study of clinical efficacy of topical retinoids in treating various ocular surface disorders.

Conducting research in the laboratory of Dr. Ilene K. Gipson on the action mechanism of various retinoids in the modulation of conjunctival goblet cell differentiation, and on the development of monoclonal antibodies against conjunctival mucins.

Under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth R. Kenyon, conducting research on conjunctival goblet-cell density and distribution in rats in relation to the aging process and vitamin A deficiency.

Applying the impression cytology technique in clinical and basic research of various ocular surface disorders, including dry-eye syndrome, blepharitis, vitamin A deficiency, alkaline burns, and etc.

Evaluating the clinical efficacy of topical retinoids in the treatment of various ocular surface disorders. Organizing the multi-center clinical trial of topical tretinoin for severe dry eye disorders.

1986-01 Supervising researches in the areas of cell biology, tissue culture, biochemistry and molecular biology.
Specific research areas include
Establishment of various epithelial cell cultures,
Factors modulating goblet cell differentiation,
Molecular mechanism for the tear film stability in the interface between mucin and ocular surface membrane proteins,
Modulation of epithelial differentiation by retinoids,
Development of autologous and allogeneic limbal epithelium stem cell transplantation for limbal stem cell deficiency including chemical burn, aniridia, and Stevens Johnson syndrome
Exploration of stem-cell regulation for corneal and conjunctival epithelia,
Studies of mechanism of photothrombosis mediated by rose Bengal.
Explore the mechanism why rose bengal does not stain normal ocular surface epithelia but stains abnormal squamous metaplastic epithelia,
Development of monoclonal antibodies to cornea-specific keratin K12 and mucosal epithelial membrane-associated mucin,
Studies of cytokine network between ocular surface epithelium and fibroblasts,
Cytological characterization of limbal stem cell deficiency,
Studies of the pathogenesis of corneal diseases characterized by limbal stem cell deficiency including chemical injuries,
Development of new surgical procedures of amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction,
Studies of the regulatory mechanism of limbal stem cell functions,
Exploration of cytokine network responsible for corneal scarring.
Initiating a tissue matrix therapy program using amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction,
Exploring the mechanism by which fibrovascular growth with corneal invasion occurs in pterygium.
Exploring and perfecting the new strategy of ocular surface reconstruction using ex vivo expansion of epithelial stem cells on amniotic membrane cultures.
Developing a research program of tissue engineering to promote epithelial tissue healing and ocular surface reconstruction.
Characterizing dry eye according to the lipid tear status using kinetic tear interference images,
Development of new lipid replacement therapy for lipid tear deficiency,
Developing and tissue engineering of sutureless AmnioLens,
Starting FDA phase I clinical trial: Transplantation of Ex Vivo Expanded Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells" for patients suffering total limbal stem cell deficiency.
Establishing the first Impression Cytology Laboratory of the Ocular Surface Center in USA that was certified by the State of Florida (No. 800017632) and CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment 1998) (No. 10D1004176) for diagnosing ocular surface failure in patients suffering from difficult ocular surface diseases effective since September 20, 2002.
Obtaining the first IND approval from FDA for Phase I clinical trial of transplanting ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial stem cells for total limbal stem cell deficiency.
Development and obtaining of FDA approval of sutureless ProKera. Initiate collaborative research on ex vivo expansion of retinal pigment epithelial cells on amniotic membrane for transplantation.
Obtain NIH grant support for launching FDA phase I clinical trial of transplanting ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial stem cells for total limbal deficiency.

Initiating in vitro and in vivo studies of eradicating ocular demodex by tea tree oil.

Begin to investigate how limbal epithelial stem cells may be regulated by their stromal niche.

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